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Sexual harassment is a legal term, created for the purpose of ending harassment and discrimination against women in the workplace. The term is constantly being redefined and extended in legislation and court decisions. However, not all sexual behavior in the workplace is harassment, and the laws against sexual harassment do not extend to situations outside the workplace or school. The basic definition of sexual harassment comes from the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC): “Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitutes sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.” Sexual Harassment is a problematic issue where women and men work together. It is being recognized as a violation of human rights and human dignity which undermines the equality of opportunity and treatment between men and women. It is difficult to say what actually constitutes sexual harassment. It encompasses a wide range of misconduct ranging from unwelcome physical contact to verbal conduct of a sexual nature. In clear cases of sexual harassment, an employee is made to believe that she will lose her job unless she sleeps with her boss. Harassment can also take the form of offensive, sexual jokes being pinched or fondled, subjected to repeated lewd or pornographic remarks and constantly being belittled and referred to by sexist names. From the study by Nepal Health Research Council, 72% workers had heard about Sexual Harassment and among them, 52% had faced it in their workplace. The most frequent type of sexual harassment was passing vulgar jokes, remarks or teasing obscenely (87%). Twenty three percent of the workers felt disruption on their job, 61% were affected mentally and 8% were affected physically after harassment. All the workers felt provision and execution of penalty to the perpetrator. But none of the factory had policy on sexual harassment or none of the worker had complained about sexual harassment to the authority yet. In Nepal, even in the absence of law, the labor court recognized sexual harassment as misconduct in the workplace. Also the labor court used the finding of research conducted by Forum for Women, Law and Development/ International Labor Organization(FWLD/ILO) and stated that sexual harassment would discourage women’s participation in the economic sector and also acknowledged need to enact a law inline with General Recommendation (GR) 19 of The Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women(CEDAW). Similarly in Nepal, Public Interest Litigation was filed12 times at the Supreme Court on behalf of the victim. In response to the Public Interest Litigation (PIL) the Supreme Court issued a directive order to the concerned Ministries to develop a Bill on sexual harassment in the workplace. Following the court order initiatives have been started, to draft a specific legislation-making employer accountable to guarantee safe and healthy workplace and recognize sexual harassment as misconduct. In Nepal Civil Societies has already drafted a Bill 14 and Government is also on the process of it. However, there is no parliament yet in Nepal due to this law making process has been affected. Also, Nepal has ratified 16 international human rights instrument including Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, (CEDAW) 1979. Also, the General Recommendation No. 19 (Eleventh session, 1992) recommends governments to take effective measures including strong penal sanctions, civil remedies and compensatory provisions to protect women against sexual harassment in the Workplace. In 2002, the Supreme Court issued an order to the government to prepare a separate and special legislation on sexual harassment at workplace. However, almost after four years—on Oct. 3, 2006—the government came up with an easy solution: It amended a chapter on ‘intent to commit sexual intercourse’ of the Muluki Ain (the Civil Code), which loosely defined sexual harassment as any ‘unwanted’ activities that were carried out with an intention of having sexual pleasures, including touching, staring, unwelcome comments about one’s body, and display of sexually explicit images. The law has a very shaky arrangement on punishment as it says that a perpetrator of sexual harassment could be sentenced “up to” one-year jail term and fined Rs. 10,000, which creates loopholes for the offender to escape with minimum punishment that could be anything starting from 24-hour detention to Rs.100 fine. The law defines some activities as sexual harassment, which should have come under ‘rape attempt’. The acts such as attempts to open others’ undergarments are also categorized as sexual harassment. If anyone makes repeated attempts of sexual harassment, that too should be taken as something more than sexual harassment and be made liable to harsher punishment. As per the Ministry of Law and Justice (MoLJ) Joint Secretary Kamal Ghimire, Government is in the process of finalizing a draft bill on sexual harassment at workplace. The Ministry of Law and Justice (MoLJ) has already forwarded a preliminary draft of the bill to the Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare, which will decide when and how to finalize it and register it for a parliamentary nod. Government should encourage the compilation of statistics and research on the extent, causes and effects of sexual harassment, and on the effectiveness of measures to prevent sexual harassment. Labor Office should play an effective role to monitor the employment conditions of workers. Gender sensitive training to judicial, quasi-judicial bodies (Labor Department, Labor Office etc) and law enforcement officers and other public officials are essential to provide justice to the victims of sexual harassment. A specific convention should be developed to deal with the issue of sexual harassment. International cooperation should be promoted for awareness programs to research, law formulation and care and support to the victims. Sexual Harassment is a human rights issue, a labor issue and a health and safety issue and hence needs a serious attention and action from all sectors in the country.

Reference:

http://www.hr-guide.com/data/A07203.htm http://www3.uakron.edu/lawrev/robert1.html http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Sexual+harrasment http://www.equalrights.org/publications/kyr/shwork.asp http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/article-29851.html http://www.hr-guide.com/data/A07202.htm The Essential Guide to Handling Workplace Harassment & Discrimination, by Deborah C. England (Nolo). http://openlibrary.org/books/OL16238021M/Sexual_harassment_at_the_workplace_in_Nepal http://www.fwld.org/pdf_files/Sexual_harassment_study.pdf http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/vaw-gp-2005/docs/experts/pradhanmalla.sh.pdf http://www.ekantipur.com/news/news-detail.php?news_id=300864 http://us.oneworld.net/article/sexual-harassment-work-spirals-nepal http://nhrc.org.np/ojs/index.php?journal=nhrc&page=article&op=viewFile&path%5B%5D=201&path%5B%5D=241 http://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JNHRC/article/viewArticle/3015 http://www.un.org/womenwatch/osagi/pdf/whatissh.pdf http://www.fwld.org/pdf_files/Sexual_harassment_study.pdf http://www.nolo.com/products/the-essential-guide-to-handling-workplace-harassment-&-discrimination-HDAB.html;jsessionid=D523108427E0168C6C9544674FFFF17C http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/article-29851.html http://www.equalrights.org/publications/kyr/shwork.asp

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Dear Sanjay

All the best to you for the New Year! How are things going in the Land of the Rising Sun? I must say, I really envy you getting that Tokyo show with the company. But thanks to my degree I have got a new job at the Fewa Media House, Pokhara. (I know bro, don’t be jealous). They have given me an apartment and a worker. Yes, I am very glad that finally I could get away from our Cold city Kathmandu and you know that I always wanted to be in pokhara. I heard about your big deal with some company. Great news! Good for you and for me when you are back in Nepal. We could party all night like old times. As for me, I am quite busy these days trying to settle down and get on with the work. We are entering Phase Two now, and are expecting to lunch television nationally in a month, at least. I am manager of the production team and so much work has not given me a small time to enjoy my time in Pokhara. You remember our very first visit to pokhara and crisis of money at last. I really miss those days but still I am happy to be away from our odium Kathmandu. I am enjoying it so far. Whether I’ll feel the same way in three years, I’m not sure. By then I might be ready to join you in Japan (if that happens trace some job for me). The work over here is not that stressed out but as being a new media house it’s very hard for this initial phase. The most of the group are local from Pokhara. We are only two of the people from Kathmandu but the friendliness and co-operation never reminds us of so called sweet Kathmandu. Both of us are really happy to leave Kathmandu. I daily go to Bicky’s restaurant for a tea. (You remember Bicky right? Yeah… Bicky solta of course). To my surprise I found out he married just some month before I was in Pokhara. He gave me his wedding treat and often remembers you and Pagal. Talking about Pagal I believe you don’t know that he got a job of construction engineer in some foreign aid hydropower in Lamjung. I heard he earns a loads of money. Before a month he was here in Pokhara for some work and we really had a good evening. My apartment is not that far from Bicky’s place and don’t envy me I can see a romantic view of Fewa Lake from the windows. I manage to visit Busy Bee once in a week. To my surprise the waiter Raju Bro recognized me and he did asked about you guys. He was very happy when he heard I was in Pokhara for a long time. The bands are not the same, some new college lads play and they are quiet nice. The places are just the same but the faces are quite different. Sometimes, I feel lonely remembering family and you guys. I can have a weekend leave once in a month and at that time I visit over my parents. Yes, travel tickets are from the office. That’s the most loved offering for me from my office. I believe you haven’t forgotten it was our dream to live over here. I have to run now and attend some office works. When you are back in Nepal directly come to pokhara and we will have some loads of fun. Keep me posted whenever you can. I really enjoy receiving your letters and getting the details of your life in Japan. Your buddy, Kafle.


Fandom is a term used to refer to a subculture composed of fans characterized by a feeling of compassion and friendship with others who share a common interest. Fans typically are interested in even minor details of the objects of their fandom and spend a significant portion of their time and energy involved with their interest, often as a part of a social Network with particular practices. A fandom can grow up centered around any area of human interest or activity. The subject of fan interest can be narrowly defined, focused on something like an individual celebrity, or more widely defined, encompassing entire hobbies, sports or music. While it is now used to apply to groups of people fascinated with any subject, the term has its roots in those with an enthusiastic appreciation for sports.

In today’s media addicted age, the term fandom has become one of the used topics in modern media. Media plays one of the highly influencing sources for the generation of the obsessed fans, May it is sports or music or anything.

Fan believes that his team should always win, that somehow they are more deserving, or even own a championship. On the plus side, they are always optimistic, and fan has a special place in their heart reserved for their favorite players and teams of a bygone era.

The Antagonist fan exists to make your life miserable. Generally speaking, they like the rival of your local team. However the circumstances unfolded, this fan also loathes your favorite team. These fans can be tough to spot after your team beats them, but are loud and obnoxious when their team wins. Nobody likes the Antagonist, yet somehow they always get invited to the big game party.

Generally, Fans can be categorized into two types. Obsessed loners are those types of fans who enter into the strong dreaming affiliation with the celebrity. It is not the appreciation of the product by the celebrity but to the celebrity himself. For example, David Beckham has a huge number of fans over Asia, girls in particular. Apart from being a great football player Beckham have a high number of girl fans by means of his looks. These are the type of fans not through his game but his gaze.

The image of frenzied or hysterical member of a crowd is the actual fan with an intense scream, weep, emotion and full heart into it. It is like a football fan rioting for his country or a club in a game. Sports fans, Music fans are good example of these types of fans. But Fan and Fandom is discussed mostly from a negative point of view where they are explained as something threatening and ‘not good’ in reference to violent behavior, social dysfunction and modernity. These terms are hardly acknowledged for what it actually stands for. The presentation of media also covers the violence, alcohol, drugs, sex from a fan. A football fan is categorized as a hooligan and a Rock n Roll fan is denoted as a drug addict. We can have our own example for an instance, we love Rock n Roll and being a fan to it is signified by a long hair, playing guitar, choose pants, leather jackets, etc. A football fan always wears a jersey or carries some of the logos or stamp of his favorite football club. These all are the respect given by the fans.

The whole of concept of fandom is wrongly taken by media by taking the entire fan as hooligans. The influence of the media over the fan is very one way. Fans have not been fairly represented by the media. Being a fan is not a way towards the hooliganism. We all have the characteristics of fans but the only difference is the degree of behavioral expression varies from an individual to individual.

A very wonderful variation of description of the fandom can be seen in two movies, Green Street Hooligan and Football Factory. Green Street hooligan is the movie of the full-time leader of team West ham United’s Green Street Elite, a gang that UK football teams call firms, and a young American. Over this movie how much vulnerable and contagious a fandom can be is shown with the person’s crazy attachment towards the club.  Over the movie Football factory an appreciation to the fandom is shown in such a way that due to the movie the number of fans to the beautiful game football may increase. The movie is full of violence but the violence is sliced with the feeling which is shown in the fans for their club. Two of the movies are giving two different sides of the fandom from the English football perspective.

The definition of the fan is always a deep rooted with the way we are. It is obvious to see crime in any of the field and in a place where human emotions rises higher than they stand the number of the violence can be slightly high. All Fans are not a mob with an image of vulnerability, mass persuasion, and alienated figure. Fan is characterized as a mob or a hooligan who are against the normal society. After all, a cultural and a religious person is somehow a fan. He follows a culture and has a faith on it. Followers of God have animal’s sacrifices, irrelevant practices and yet it is accepted by the society. Fandom as a subculture is yet completely neglected without even getting into its crux point. The same thing is with a fan; only difference is society won’t accept it.

A question will be always raised, how fairly the fans have been represented and understood? There is very less ground to get a positive answer to the above question regarding a fandom as social, cultural and regular phenomena.


“Naya Nepal” with a novel name a set of traits has come along in our country. The qualities that are not only the primary phase of the newly established state but the only deeds of our political parties, Netas and the government. We live in one of the world’s energy rich country and yet the citizens of this state lacks in getting just a basic energy source for the day to day life. Fuel scarcity is one major crisis with very erratic future; whereas electricity cut-off is an old promptness of the state. With further much more progression of other nations we still lack behind in the same old story. Any of the government either it’s of rebel or the old players, this major crisis of the nation is not critically taken. Respective government bodies Nepal Oil Corporation and Nepal Electricity Authority has shown their extreme level of passiveness over the matter. This energy crisis is one of the major problem of the state apart of the numbers of other problems in the list. If any government can’t even fulfill the essential requirement of the citizen, no one can predict any further improvement over the state of nation. A normal citizen like us are to be suffered much and the term “Naya Nepal” has not yet brought any of the good qualities with it with just continuing the same old problem with an entirely new way of giving it a regularity.

From the very beginning of Human existence travel is what we people have been following on. Before the time it was for the basic needs like food, shelter or protection but the present scenario of travelling can be of a lot of grounds. Travelling, it’s a much loved word by people from the very beginning. Over here, some general categorization of the traveler is done into the Backpackers, Holidaymakers and Purposive travelers.

The first types are the Backpackers who travel alone or in small groups on self-organized trips, and includes; trekkers, mountaineers, climbers, bikers, canoeists, scuba divers, etc. The list is endless. This type of excursion usually involves travelling on foot or public transport and staying in simple cheap accommodation. This can expose travelers to additional health risks and it is this group of travelers who will probably benefit the most from taking their own customized medical kit with them. The backpackers have the highest amount of medical as well as other types of risk in their travelling. But they don’t simply care about any risk as risk in travelling is what they love about. True adventures, adrenaline, risk, every kind of trouble is welcome by backpackers. The only thing they seek is adventure and they are ready to tackle with whatever comes over their line.

The second types of traveler are Holidaymakers who travel to a holiday destination. These travelers are going to a holiday resort with a hotel with all the comforts of home; they will usually have easy access to medical facilities. They want to be in a home far away from home. They would love to spend money over recreations like disco, casino, boating. They simply won’t care about the expense as they are prepared to have a lot of money to spend for take pleasure in. most of the time; people who are tired of their monotonous life routine take this sort of trip. People are also in Holiday trip if functions like marriage, birth comes in their life. Holidaymakers travel not for the adventure but for fun and recreation, a short break from their ongoing life.

The third types of traveler are purposive traveler who travels for some motive. Either it may be for a business purpose or official work they take on the trip. All the facilities they seek are somewhat similar to the holidaymakers with appropriate hotel stay and sound medical assistance. Very often business travelers take on the trip as it is the part of their work. Business trips have to be approved by the employer, who usually meets the costs. The traveling expenses can be calculated in detail depending on the average expense of the travel country.

These are different types of people with their varieties of travelling ways and purpose. It is not that the above mentioned category of travelling is done by the same person each time. People can be same but the type of travel they do may vary some times as backpackers may sometimes go on business trip or the holidaymakers might have to go the Purposive trip. Lastly, travelling is a very common character of a human being as every man is a traveler and the whole life comes up with variety of destination.

The world today has leaped into the new epoch of digital substitutes. We as a normal entity of contemporary time find ourself entirely bordered by the number of digital selections around us. From television serials to internet jamming, we appoint our whole time with the bottoms and remotes.

The present situation of load-shedding has changed the scenario upside down. The regular power cut-off has hit big kick to the electronic world. I might have laptop but even a laptop can’t cope up with this sort of a long power cut-off. This has changed the entire lifestyle of what actually it would be of digital haves society. The daily routine has to be changed and keyboards are to be exchange with the pencil. The time when electricity was quite adequate, I always had package of alternates to appoint and entertain myself. I would rather be dipping into the internet whole day, or simply playing my play station. Watching movies and listening to song s were other best things to do. I was so much into it that the outside world was getting far-flung.

The long-lasting I would say and quiet boring power-cut-off was like a chronic disease to me. I had been so much addicted that the long power cut-off was a tough and the most frantic wait for me. But eventually, I am overcoming this addiction of mine. These days I rather enjoy the load shedding than hate it with my gigantic rage. I engage myself doing practical things than being a slave to electricity. Power cut-off have had made me more close to my friends and of course, my family. During regular power supply, I have never occupied myself with my family more than for a meal. But now, I spend hour’s conversation with my parents. I use similar sort of time with my friends. I go traveling, hiking or simply roam around. Life is beautiful when you feel it with your experience and I have known it these days. Now, I fairly thank load shedding for bringing me back to living.

I have now known that it’s awesome to practically experience anything than to watch it done by others. From playing sports to your own creation it’s full of excitement. I was once undisputed in FIFA game. No one could win me and when I went to play a real football I was terrible. So, what I have known is that life should not be pessimistic as it is full of alternates. It is us who have to search for it and grasp it for the fullest.

My writing is not against the digital world and it is not that I don’t need it. The whole advance way of life is there and has made us quiet dependent but shouldn’t we remember for what extent. We should maintain our addiction to digital world for a limitation. Never put yourself inside the walls and try to see the world outside from a click. Get your boot and go out for a lot of adventures and experience and know it from your way.

The very first time I had been to Pokhara was with my father to spend my school holidays.  I Stayed there for about a month and never wanted to get back home. I never have been akin to Kathmandu, a coldest city but unfortunately my hometown. From the very first visit, I always wanted to be back to Pokhara. So, it was my school holiday destination for 2-3 times. The place with its eternal beauty and the people were always around my heart.

It had been a home away from home for me and all of a sudden it was finished when my father was back in the capital with the job. I never got a chance to be back to my favorite place for almost 3 years. Then, it was the time I had finished my +2, I finally got a freeway ticket from my family to be back at my favorite place.  It was my 3 day trip with all of my buddies. It was the perfect place to be for us finishing as we had just finished our exams and were thirsty for some fun. We found this gorgeous city with a blend of modernity within its native culture, a natural beauty that you never get enough of and chilled evenings. It was my first time in Pokhara with friends apart from family. No orders and no followings I felt like I was a free bird, I could go anywhere I wanted and I was all in my own. Of course, friends were there but it was just the same with them as well. This was not my first visit to this beautiful city but I felt like it was my first time over there. That was the time I realized a man is free when he is on his own and it is what he always wants to be.

Then slowly, it was like I had some attachment with that place and I kept on going there for a lot of times. My very first visit to a live music pub was back there in Kathmandu. It was the time when my two of the trance of travelling and Music was together. As pokhara would many of times be a centre point for travelling to many of the Nepal’s best destinations it has many of times been a resting place for me. I have made many of foreigner as well as Pokhareli friends over there. It is a place where a completely stranger can be a good pal and with whom you can share same cup of tea. These days it’s like going over to meet some pals and have some fun. Maybe, because of being from such a cold-hearted city Kathmandu where no-one has a damn time to share a bit with anyone even a Hotel manager can make a big impact when you are in pokhara. The warm and friendly response of Pokhareli people is never less every time I have been there. They are never tired of helping the stranger to their land and which is a very rare experience over Kathmandu. Before a year when I went to Pokhara with my two best friends to celebrate a new year we met a local fellow named Bicky whose family ran a restaurant and bike rent shop. He gave us bikes for a rent for a very low price and helped us with shortcuts. We did every meal over there and he was never tired of chitchatting with us. Not only Bicky but all of his family were very lovely. We had been so much attached with them in our 4 days trip. On our way back to Kathmandu he even gave us a lift up to Bus Park in his car. I was back there very lately on my way to trekking and again I was there to met Bicky and his family. To my surprise he had married and bit change in the restaurant I observed. But nothing was changed in him, he was the same person how he was back then, this time as well he helped me and my friends as much as he could. These kinds of co-operation and friendliness are almost impossible in my hometown. Among many of the friends I have made in Pokhara Bicky will always come in first place.

I feel like Kathmanduties are the most lonesome people who can enjoy anywhere apart from their homeland and that might be the reason why I love pokhara blindly.

They say I am futile

rubbish in their regime

A stranger to their world

Where I am caged in a dusk of light

Drowning into the mystic pond

valley of death I feel like being

Bounded by all the living dead

Who gave me the stigma of stranger

Higher into the skies I desire to fly

But my legs are all tied up

They are trying to close my eyes

Who gave me the stigma of stranger

I will be there…….
If one day you feel like crying…
Call me.
I don’t promise that I will make you laugh,
But I can cry with you

If one day you want to run away–
Don’t be afraid to call me.
I don’t promise to ask you to stop…
But I can run with you

If one day you don’t want to listen
to anyone…
Call me.
I promise to be there for…